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Post by michaellcmacha on 17/11/2020, 11:58

samo se ti trudi...
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Post by michaellcmacha on 17/11/2020, 12:15

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Post by Eroo on 17/11/2020, 12:16


1.945 novih slučajeva u protekla 24 sata, u bolnicama ukupno 1.827 osoba


U protekla 24 sata zabilježeno je 1.945 novih slučajeva pa je broj trenutno oboljelih (aktivnih slučajeva) u Hrvatskoj danas 15.371. Među njima je 1.827 pacijenata na bolničkom liječenju, od toga je na respiratoru 196 pacijenata. U protekla 24 sata oporavilo su se 2.242 osobe, a testirano je njih 7.262. 
17.11.2020. 10:35

Umrli: +31

"Ples" aktivno pozitivnih se nastavlja, ovaj puta prema dolje: 15,371

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Post by Noor on 17/11/2020, 12:37


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Post by mutava baštarda on 17/11/2020, 13:38


Da remiziramo... - Page 48 2_3
meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše

Da remiziramo... - Page 48 Reci-ne-ovisnosti4

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Post by michaellcmacha on 17/11/2020, 14:27

@mutava baštarda wrote:

Da remiziramo... - Page 48 2_3
meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše

Da remiziramo... - Page 48 Reci-ne-ovisnosti4
Onda valjda kužiš zašto meni isto nije nekih žao...
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Post by Gnječ on 17/11/2020, 14:44

@mutava baštarda wrote:


meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše


stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan.

što to znači? oni malo pametni su ekstremno opasniji nego oni koji su malo ludi.

Current smoking is not associated with COVID-19

European Respiratory Journal 2020 55: 2001290; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01290-2020


Despite the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection regard lung involvement, the prevalence of current smoking in COVID-19 patients is very low, thus questioning the role of coexisting active smoking as a risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia

We have read with interest the paper by Leung et al. [1] recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, reporting a higher expression of the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients with putatively important implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, since ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor utilised by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter the host cell [2]. Furthermore, the authors reported that current smokers showed a higher expression of ACE-2 gene expression than non-smokers, concluding that the increased ACE-2 expression in smokers might predispose to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [1].

To this regard, all epidemiological data published so far reported that COVID-19 patients show a very low prevalence of smokers, with no significant association between current smoking and severe disease in COVID-19 patients [3–6].

At the University-Hospital of Padova, located in the Veneto Region, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19, between 15 March and 10 April, 2020, 132 patients were assessed in our clinic for SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia. The analysis of patients' smoking history showed that no-one was a current smoker, with 112 patients (84.8%) who had never smoked and 20 (15.2%) who were former smokers. These data are in agreement with those from China [3–6]. Furthermore, there was no difference in the disease severity between patients who never smoked and former smokers. These data are even more striking if we consider that the percentage of current smokers in Italy and in the Veneto Region is 25.7% and 22.7%, respectively (www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/dati/fumo).

Thus, the conclusions of Leung et al. [1] to consider cigarette smoking as a severe risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia are in contrast with the strong and consolidated epidemiological data coming from China [3–6] that have been confirmed also in our patients.

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/55/6/2001290#ref-1

dakle, pušači duhana iz nekog još uvijek nepoznatog razloga u manjem broju završe na respiratoru nego oni covid pacijenti koji nikad nisu konzumirali duhan.
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Post by Noor on 17/11/2020, 14:55

@mutava baštarda wrote:
meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše
stavi ti slaninu na prsa i ne brigaj :)

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Post by vuksadinare on 17/11/2020, 15:07

u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
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Post by Eroo on 17/11/2020, 15:48

@vuksadinare wrote:u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
Kasne. Lova u EU je već podijeljena.
Viš šta ti znači imati pravovremeno pravu  informaciju. :)

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Post by Pirate on 17/11/2020, 17:11

@vuksadinare wrote:u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
Strasno, skoro trecina zarazenih od ukupno testiranih. 179 na respiratorima, a tek ce pravo zahladiti.
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Post by vili40 on 17/11/2020, 17:16

@Eroo wrote:
@vuksadinare wrote:u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
Kasne. Lova u EU je već podijeljena.
Viš šta ti znači imati pravovremeno pravu  informaciju. :)
što će nam lova kad nemamo mozga i kad smo pokvareni?Kako ono vele,da nas treba same naučiti loviti ribu a ne da nas stalno netko hrani?I na kraju tu lovu običan čovjek neće ni osjetiti kad ovi prosipaju i ne rade ništa pametno.
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Post by mutava baštarda on 17/11/2020, 17:55

@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:


meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše


stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan.

što to znači? oni malo pametni su ekstremno opasniji nego oni koji su malo ludi.

Current smoking is not associated with COVID-19

European Respiratory Journal 2020 55: 2001290; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01290-2020


Despite the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection regard lung involvement, the prevalence of current smoking in COVID-19 patients is very low, thus questioning the role of coexisting active smoking as a risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia

We have read with interest the paper by Leung et al. [1] recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, reporting a higher expression of the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients with putatively important implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, since ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor utilised by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter the host cell [2]. Furthermore, the authors reported that current smokers showed a higher expression of ACE-2 gene expression than non-smokers, concluding that the increased ACE-2 expression in smokers might predispose to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [1].

To this regard, all epidemiological data published so far reported that COVID-19 patients show a very low prevalence of smokers, with no significant association between current smoking and severe disease in COVID-19 patients [3–6].

At the University-Hospital of Padova, located in the Veneto Region, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19, between 15 March and 10 April, 2020, 132 patients were assessed in our clinic for SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia. The analysis of patients' smoking history showed that no-one was a current smoker, with 112 patients (84.8%) who had never smoked and 20 (15.2%) who were former smokers. These data are in agreement with those from China [3–6]. Furthermore, there was no difference in the disease severity between patients who never smoked and former smokers. These data are even more striking if we consider that the percentage of current smokers in Italy and in the Veneto Region is 25.7% and 22.7%, respectively (www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/dati/fumo).

Thus, the conclusions of Leung et al. [1] to consider cigarette smoking as a severe risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia are in contrast with the strong and consolidated epidemiological data coming from China [3–6] that have been confirmed also in our patients.

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/55/6/2001290#ref-1

dakle, pušači duhana iz nekog još uvijek nepoznatog razloga u manjem broju završe na respiratoru nego oni covid pacijenti koji nikad nisu konzumirali duhan.
https://www.livescience.com/why-covid-19-coronavirus-deadly-for-some-people.html
[size=35]People who smoke cigarettes may be prone to severe COVID-19 infections, meaning they face a heightened risk of developing [/size]pneumonia[size=35], suffering organ damage and requiring breathing support. A study of more than 1,000 patients in China, published in the [/size]New England Journal of Medicine[size=35], illustrates this trend: 12.3% of current smokers included in the study were admitted to an ICU, were placed on a ventilator or died, as compared with 4.7% of nonsmokers. [/size]

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Post by Gnječ on 17/11/2020, 18:24

@mutava baštarda wrote:
@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:


meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše


stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan.

što to znači? oni malo pametni su ekstremno opasniji nego oni koji su malo ludi.

Current smoking is not associated with COVID-19

European Respiratory Journal 2020 55: 2001290; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01290-2020


Despite the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection regard lung involvement, the prevalence of current smoking in COVID-19 patients is very low, thus questioning the role of coexisting active smoking as a risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia

We have read with interest the paper by Leung et al. [1] recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, reporting a higher expression of the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients with putatively important implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, since ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor utilised by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter the host cell [2]. Furthermore, the authors reported that current smokers showed a higher expression of ACE-2 gene expression than non-smokers, concluding that the increased ACE-2 expression in smokers might predispose to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [1].

To this regard, all epidemiological data published so far reported that COVID-19 patients show a very low prevalence of smokers, with no significant association between current smoking and severe disease in COVID-19 patients [3–6].

At the University-Hospital of Padova, located in the Veneto Region, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19, between 15 March and 10 April, 2020, 132 patients were assessed in our clinic for SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia. The analysis of patients' smoking history showed that no-one was a current smoker, with 112 patients (84.8%) who had never smoked and 20 (15.2%) who were former smokers. These data are in agreement with those from China [3–6]. Furthermore, there was no difference in the disease severity between patients who never smoked and former smokers. These data are even more striking if we consider that the percentage of current smokers in Italy and in the Veneto Region is 25.7% and 22.7%, respectively (www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/dati/fumo).

Thus, the conclusions of Leung et al. [1] to consider cigarette smoking as a severe risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia are in contrast with the strong and consolidated epidemiological data coming from China [3–6] that have been confirmed also in our patients.

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/55/6/2001290#ref-1

dakle, pušači duhana iz nekog još uvijek nepoznatog razloga u manjem broju završe na respiratoru nego oni covid pacijenti koji nikad nisu konzumirali duhan.
https://www.livescience.com/why-covid-19-coronavirus-deadly-for-some-people.html
[size=35]People who smoke cigarettes may be prone to severe COVID-19 infections, meaning they face a heightened risk of developing [/size]pneumonia[size=35], suffering organ damage and requiring breathing support. A study of more than 1,000 patients in China, published in the [/size]New England Journal of Medicine[size=35], illustrates this trend: 12.3% of current smokers included in the study were admitted to an ICU, were placed on a ventilator or died, as compared with 4.7% of nonsmokers. [/size]

While there several health benefits that accrue from smoking cessation, recent press reports seem to suggest that smokers are somehow protected from COVID-19.

Indeed, early reports from China on the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 found that the proportion of smokers was less than expected based on the estimated prevalence of smoking in the country which is 27.7%.2 For instance, in one study, the proportion of smokers was found to be considerably less than the average at 1.4%3 and while higher at 7% in another study,4 this was still lower than the average. Since these early reports from China, several other studies from different countries have also demonstrated that a lower than expected number of smokers have been hospitalised with COVID-19.

In a study of those hospitalised with COVID-19 in New York, the prevalence of smokers was 5.1%5 which is less than half of the most recent estimate of the overall US smoking prevalence of 13.7%.6 Similarly, a retrospective analysis of 441 patients admitted to a hospital in northern Italy, found that less than 5% of patients were smokers, compared to an estimated age-adjusted prevalence of 14.9%.7 In a study of 340 patients in a French university hospital, it was found that 6.1% of patients were smokers compared to a population rate of 25.4%.8 Finally, in a yet to be peer-reviewed meta-analysis of available studies, Spanish researchers calculated that smokers were statistically less likely (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 – 0.23) to be hospitalised for COVID-19

But are these observations simply a fluke or is there a plausible explanation that could account for the reduced incidence of COVID-19 among smokers?

One hypothesis proposes that it is nicotine which provides a degree of protection against the virus. This is based on an observation in 1990, that acute nicotine inhalation can increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and that this effect is mediated via an increase in angiotensin converting enzyme activity. In addition, other work has shown how the nicotine-induced rise in the level of ACE is also associated with a downregulation of the level of ACE-211 which is now considered to be a functional receptor for COVID-19 entry into cells. Other work has shown that nicotine is able to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on immune cells and that this effect leads to an inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and protects against acute inflammation in lung tissue.

While this appears to represent a rationale for how nicotine may be protective against COVID-19, other and more recent work published as a research letter to the European Respiratory Journal, found that in both smokers and those with COPD, there was an increased airway expression of ACE-2. The authors concluded that this offered a possible explanation as to why those with COPD are at an increased risk of infection but the data effectively countered the potentially protective role of nicotine. In an effort to untangle the association between smoking and COVID-19, an as yet non-peer reviewed analysis of 67 observational studies conducted in several different studies concluded that there is substantial uncertainty about the associations between smoking and COVID-19 outcomes.

Moreover, an evidence review by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, also concluded that there is no significant association between smoking and severe disease.16 In contrast, the most recent meta-analysis of 19 peer-reviewed papers that included 11,590 patients concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the progression of COVID-19, with smokers having a higher odds of COVID-19 progression.

https://hospitalhealthcare.com/covid-19/are-smokers-protected-from-covid-19/
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Post by Legendovich on 17/11/2020, 18:26

@Pirate wrote:
@vuksadinare wrote:u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
Strasno, skoro trecina zarazenih od ukupno testiranih. 179 na respiratorima, a tek ce pravo zahladiti.

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Post by mutava baštarda on 17/11/2020, 21:23

@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:
@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:


meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše


stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan.

što to znači? oni malo pametni su ekstremno opasniji nego oni koji su malo ludi.

Current smoking is not associated with COVID-19

European Respiratory Journal 2020 55: 2001290; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01290-2020


Despite the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection regard lung involvement, the prevalence of current smoking in COVID-19 patients is very low, thus questioning the role of coexisting active smoking as a risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia

We have read with interest the paper by Leung et al. [1] recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, reporting a higher expression of the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients with putatively important implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, since ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor utilised by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter the host cell [2]. Furthermore, the authors reported that current smokers showed a higher expression of ACE-2 gene expression than non-smokers, concluding that the increased ACE-2 expression in smokers might predispose to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [1].

To this regard, all epidemiological data published so far reported that COVID-19 patients show a very low prevalence of smokers, with no significant association between current smoking and severe disease in COVID-19 patients [3–6].

At the University-Hospital of Padova, located in the Veneto Region, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19, between 15 March and 10 April, 2020, 132 patients were assessed in our clinic for SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia. The analysis of patients' smoking history showed that no-one was a current smoker, with 112 patients (84.8%) who had never smoked and 20 (15.2%) who were former smokers. These data are in agreement with those from China [3–6]. Furthermore, there was no difference in the disease severity between patients who never smoked and former smokers. These data are even more striking if we consider that the percentage of current smokers in Italy and in the Veneto Region is 25.7% and 22.7%, respectively (www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/dati/fumo).

Thus, the conclusions of Leung et al. [1] to consider cigarette smoking as a severe risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia are in contrast with the strong and consolidated epidemiological data coming from China [3–6] that have been confirmed also in our patients.

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/55/6/2001290#ref-1

dakle, pušači duhana iz nekog još uvijek nepoznatog razloga u manjem broju završe na respiratoru nego oni covid pacijenti koji nikad nisu konzumirali duhan.
https://www.livescience.com/why-covid-19-coronavirus-deadly-for-some-people.html
[size=48]People who smoke cigarettes may be prone to severe COVID-19 infections, meaning they face a heightened risk of developing [/size]pneumonia[size=48], suffering organ damage and requiring breathing support. A study of more than 1,000 patients in China, published in the [/size]New England Journal of Medicine[size=48], illustrates this trend: 12.3% of current smokers included in the study were admitted to an ICU, were placed on a ventilator or died, as compared with 4.7% of nonsmokers. [/size]

While there several health benefits that accrue from smoking cessation, recent press reports seem to suggest that smokers are somehow protected from COVID-19.

Indeed, early reports from China on the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 found that the proportion of smokers was less than expected based on the estimated prevalence of smoking in the country which is 27.7%.2 For instance, in one study, the proportion of smokers was found to be considerably less than the average at 1.4%3 and while higher at 7% in another study,4 this was still lower than the average. Since these early reports from China, several other studies from different countries have also demonstrated that a lower than expected number of smokers have been hospitalised with COVID-19.

In a study of those hospitalised with COVID-19 in New York, the prevalence of smokers was 5.1%5 which is less than half of the most recent estimate of the overall US smoking prevalence of 13.7%.6 Similarly, a retrospective analysis of 441 patients admitted to a hospital in northern Italy, found that less than 5% of patients were smokers, compared to an estimated age-adjusted prevalence of 14.9%.7 In a study of 340 patients in a French university hospital, it was found that 6.1% of patients were smokers compared to a population rate of 25.4%.8 Finally, in a yet to be peer-reviewed meta-analysis of available studies, Spanish researchers calculated that smokers were statistically less likely (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 – 0.23) to be hospitalised for COVID-19

But are these observations simply a fluke or is there a plausible explanation that could account for the reduced incidence of COVID-19 among smokers?

One hypothesis proposes that it is nicotine which provides a degree of protection against the virus. This is based on an observation in 1990, that acute nicotine inhalation can increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and that this effect is mediated via an increase in angiotensin converting enzyme activity. In addition, other work has shown how the nicotine-induced rise in the level of ACE is also associated with a downregulation of the level of ACE-211 which is now considered to be a functional receptor for COVID-19 entry into cells. Other work has shown that nicotine is able to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on immune cells and that this effect leads to an inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and protects against acute inflammation in lung tissue.

While this appears to represent a rationale for how nicotine may be protective against COVID-19, other and more recent work published as a research letter to the European Respiratory Journal, found that in both smokers and those with COPD, there was an increased airway expression of ACE-2. The authors concluded that this offered a possible explanation as to why those with COPD are at an increased risk of infection but the data effectively countered the potentially protective role of nicotine. In an effort to untangle the association between smoking and COVID-19, an as yet non-peer reviewed analysis of 67 observational studies conducted in several different studies concluded that there is substantial uncertainty about the associations between smoking and COVID-19 outcomes.

Moreover, an evidence review by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, also concluded that there is no significant association between smoking and severe disease.16 In contrast, the most recent meta-analysis of 19 peer-reviewed papers that included 11,590 patients concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the progression of COVID-19, with smokers having a higher odds of COVID-19 progression.

https://hospitalhealthcare.com/covid-19/are-smokers-protected-from-covid-19/
veliš :"
stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan."


ima i jedna naša: nekome je lakše ugurati u guzicu nego u glavu

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Post by Eroo on 17/11/2020, 21:39

@vili40 wrote:
@Eroo wrote:
@vuksadinare wrote:u srbiji 5000 zarazenih ili tocnije 4.994 i 24 umrla
Kasne. Lova u EU je već podijeljena.
Viš šta ti znači imati pravovremeno pravu  informaciju. :)
što će nam lova kad nemamo mozga i kad smo pokvareni?Kako ono vele,da nas treba same naučiti loviti ribu a ne da nas stalno netko hrani?I na kraju tu lovu običan čovjek neće ni osjetiti kad ovi prosipaju i ne rade ništa pametno.
Nek se  samo troši, lova i je za to. :)

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Post by Gnječ on 17/11/2020, 22:04

@mutava baštarda wrote:
@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:
@Gnječ wrote:
@mutava baštarda wrote:


meni pušača nije žao. na kutiji duvana sve lijepo piše


stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan.

što to znači? oni malo pametni su ekstremno opasniji nego oni koji su malo ludi.

Current smoking is not associated with COVID-19

European Respiratory Journal 2020 55: 2001290; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01290-2020


Despite the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection regard lung involvement, the prevalence of current smoking in COVID-19 patients is very low, thus questioning the role of coexisting active smoking as a risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia

We have read with interest the paper by Leung et al. [1] recently published in the European Respiratory Journal, reporting a higher expression of the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-2) in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients with putatively important implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, since ACE-2 has been shown to be the receptor utilised by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to enter the host cell [2]. Furthermore, the authors reported that current smokers showed a higher expression of ACE-2 gene expression than non-smokers, concluding that the increased ACE-2 expression in smokers might predispose to increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection [1].

To this regard, all epidemiological data published so far reported that COVID-19 patients show a very low prevalence of smokers, with no significant association between current smoking and severe disease in COVID-19 patients [3–6].

At the University-Hospital of Padova, located in the Veneto Region, one of the areas in Italy most affected by COVID-19, between 15 March and 10 April, 2020, 132 patients were assessed in our clinic for SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia. The analysis of patients' smoking history showed that no-one was a current smoker, with 112 patients (84.8%) who had never smoked and 20 (15.2%) who were former smokers. These data are in agreement with those from China [3–6]. Furthermore, there was no difference in the disease severity between patients who never smoked and former smokers. These data are even more striking if we consider that the percentage of current smokers in Italy and in the Veneto Region is 25.7% and 22.7%, respectively (www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/dati/fumo).

Thus, the conclusions of Leung et al. [1] to consider cigarette smoking as a severe risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia are in contrast with the strong and consolidated epidemiological data coming from China [3–6] that have been confirmed also in our patients.

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/55/6/2001290#ref-1

dakle, pušači duhana iz nekog još uvijek nepoznatog razloga u manjem broju završe na respiratoru nego oni covid pacijenti koji nikad nisu konzumirali duhan.
https://www.livescience.com/why-covid-19-coronavirus-deadly-for-some-people.html
[size=48]People who smoke cigarettes may be prone to severe COVID-19 infections, meaning they face a heightened risk of developing [/size]pneumonia[size=48], suffering organ damage and requiring breathing support. A study of more than 1,000 patients in China, published in the [/size]New England Journal of Medicine[size=48], illustrates this trend: 12.3% of current smokers included in the study were admitted to an ICU, were placed on a ventilator or died, as compared with 4.7% of nonsmokers. [/size]

While there several health benefits that accrue from smoking cessation, recent press reports seem to suggest that smokers are somehow protected from COVID-19.

Indeed, early reports from China on the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 found that the proportion of smokers was less than expected based on the estimated prevalence of smoking in the country which is 27.7%.2 For instance, in one study, the proportion of smokers was found to be considerably less than the average at 1.4%3 and while higher at 7% in another study,4 this was still lower than the average. Since these early reports from China, several other studies from different countries have also demonstrated that a lower than expected number of smokers have been hospitalised with COVID-19.

In a study of those hospitalised with COVID-19 in New York, the prevalence of smokers was 5.1%5 which is less than half of the most recent estimate of the overall US smoking prevalence of 13.7%.6 Similarly, a retrospective analysis of 441 patients admitted to a hospital in northern Italy, found that less than 5% of patients were smokers, compared to an estimated age-adjusted prevalence of 14.9%.7 In a study of 340 patients in a French university hospital, it was found that 6.1% of patients were smokers compared to a population rate of 25.4%.8 Finally, in a yet to be peer-reviewed meta-analysis of available studies, Spanish researchers calculated that smokers were statistically less likely (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 – 0.23) to be hospitalised for COVID-19

But are these observations simply a fluke or is there a plausible explanation that could account for the reduced incidence of COVID-19 among smokers?

One hypothesis proposes that it is nicotine which provides a degree of protection against the virus. This is based on an observation in 1990, that acute nicotine inhalation can increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and that this effect is mediated via an increase in angiotensin converting enzyme activity. In addition, other work has shown how the nicotine-induced rise in the level of ACE is also associated with a downregulation of the level of ACE-211 which is now considered to be a functional receptor for COVID-19 entry into cells. Other work has shown that nicotine is able to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on immune cells and that this effect leads to an inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and protects against acute inflammation in lung tissue.

While this appears to represent a rationale for how nicotine may be protective against COVID-19, other and more recent work published as a research letter to the European Respiratory Journal, found that in both smokers and those with COPD, there was an increased airway expression of ACE-2. The authors concluded that this offered a possible explanation as to why those with COPD are at an increased risk of infection but the data effectively countered the potentially protective role of nicotine. In an effort to untangle the association between smoking and COVID-19, an as yet non-peer reviewed analysis of 67 observational studies conducted in several different studies concluded that there is substantial uncertainty about the associations between smoking and COVID-19 outcomes.

Moreover, an evidence review by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, also concluded that there is no significant association between smoking and severe disease.16 In contrast, the most recent meta-analysis of 19 peer-reviewed papers that included 11,590 patients concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the progression of COVID-19, with smokers having a higher odds of COVID-19 progression.

https://hospitalhealthcare.com/covid-19/are-smokers-protected-from-covid-19/
veliš :"
stara kineska poslovica kaže: bolje biti malo lud nego malo pametan."


ima i jedna naša: nekome je lakše ugurati u guzicu nego u glavu

ima i jedna naša istrijanska: da bi pametan ima, ča munjen pensa, vero dobro bi sta.
Gnječ
Gnječ

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2020-10-20


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Post by Hektorović on 17/11/2020, 22:48

Medicinska sestra iz SAD-a ispričala što joj prije smrti kažu pacijenti s koronom
prije 7 minuta

Da remiziramo... - Page 48 2dce5dd3-4097-4863-bee3-1b6bcddc7855
Screenshot: CNN
MEDICINSKA sestra Jodi Doering iz Južne Dakote ispričala je za CNN kako neki od njezinih pacijenata s koronavirusom čak i na samrti odbijaju vjerovati da je covid-19 stvaran.
"Jako mi je teško gledati kako ljudi još uvijek ne žele priznati da koronavirus postoji, mada dođu u ambulantu s jako teškim simptomima. Žele neki čarobni lijek i odbijaju povjerovati da imaju covid-19", kazala je Doering.



"Postoji razlog zašto sam o tome pisala na Twitteru. Naime, ne radi se o jednom pacijentu, jednom izdvojenom slučaju. Bilo je više pacijenata kojima su zadnje riječi na samrti bile da se ovo ne događa i da nije stvarno. Umjesto da svoje posljednje trenutke provedu s obitelji, oni su puni gorčine. To me stvarno rastužilo neki dan; nisam mogla vjerovati da će to biti njihove zadnje misli i riječi", objasnila je.

Ponekad se ljute na medicinsko osoblje

Kada je novinarka upitala sestru jesu li takvi pacijenti ljuti na nju, ona je odgovorila da su zapravo ljuti na cijelu situaciju, a budući da ne vjeruju da postoji covid-19, često to usmjere prema medicinskom osoblju.
"To je u redu. Mi to možemo podnijeti. Zato smo tu. Problem je u ukupnoj slici, odnosno kada pokušate urazumiti ljude. Recimo, znam ih pitati hoćemo li nazvati njihove supruge, djecu, obitelj, a oni odgovore da ne treba jer će oni biti dobro. Kada im pogledam razinu kisika u krvi, vidim da je jako niska i znam koje mogu biti posljedice. I onda sam tužna, ljuta, frustrirana. Pa to sve prihvatim jer znam da ću se ponovno suočiti s takvom situacijom", odgovorila je medicinska sestra.

"Oni bi radije imali upalu pluća ili rak"

Novinarka Alisyn Camerota upitala je zatim Doering što takvi pacijenti misle – od čega boluju?
"Mislim da traže spas u bilo čemu. Žele da to bude upala pluća. Neki su mi čak govorili kako imaju rak pluća, a ne koronavirus. Ja im kažem kako imaju covid-19, no u to ne povjeruju čak ni nakon što dobiju pozitivne rezultate testiranja. Naravno, nisu svi takvi, imamo puno pacijenata koji su jako zahvalni i razumni, no to mi sada nije u glavi. Želim se kao medicinska sestra sjećati pozitivnih trenutaka, gdje smo ljudima spasili život, a ne ovakvih situacija", ispričala je Doering.
"Često se osjećam kao da sam u nekom horor-filmu koji nikako da završi i koji stalno kreće ispočetka. To je tužno jer se tako osjećaju svi liječnici i sve medicinske sestre u državi. Ljudi se razbole na isti način, liječimo ih na isti način, umiru na isti način i onda sve ispočetka. Zahvalna sam na svemu što sam naučila, znam da pomažem ljudima. Ali stvarnost je takva da situacija s koronavirusom još uvijek ne ide prema boljem", zaključila je.
Hektorović
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2018-04-10


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